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Desarrollo de Vellosidades Report. Published on Oct View Download 0. Cirionicas was hypothesised that lactose consumption would ameliorate the weaning-induced decrease in gut integrity. A total of forty-two barrows were used. Piglets were weaned at 27 SD 08 d of age and weighed 80 SD kg. On the day before weaning day 2 1 all pigs coorionicas blocked according to body weight and randomly assigned to seven groups n 6 per group.
The groups differed in diet and day of dissection. On the day of weaning, dis- section was performed on one group of six dee. The piglets received a liquid diet air-dry meal: The piglets were given access to a maximum of dietary energy in order to prevent confounding between feed intake and villus architecture. The piglets were dissected and sampled on days 0, 3, or 10 post-weaning.
The results show that corionicaw carbohydrate source did not affect growth performance, organ weights, villus architecture, pH of chyme and plasma haptoglobin level. The weaning transition resulted in decreased villus height and increased haptoglobin levels. In the contents of the caecum and large intestine, the pH decreased after weaning.
It is concluded that at least under conditions of similar feed intake and low infectious pressure, dietary lactose does not ameliorate the weaning-induced compromise of vellosidadws integrity vllosidades compared with either glucose or starch.
Gut morphologyAt weaning, the diet composition of piglets changes drasti- cally. The liquid sows milk is replaced by pelleted dry feed with carbohydrates, instead of fat, as the main energy source. In addition, lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk, is replaced by starch. The weaning transition is accompanied by low feed intake Leibbrandt et al. Epithelial cells need energy to maintain gut integrity.
Glucose is an energy source for epithelial cells Malletet al. By providing glucose as a preferred energy source for the epithelial cells, the effect of post-weaning low feed intake on small-intestinal architecture might beameliorated. Additionally, it has been shown that increasingthe amounts of lactose in the weaner diet at the expense of protein is associated with higher group-mean villus height in the blopsia small intestine of piglets Spreeu- wenberg et al.
Vellsidades can be hypothesised that lactose, being the main sugar in sows milk, has specific properties contributing to mucosal integrity in newly weaned piglets. The diets were supplied to weanling piglets and their villus height and crypt depth were measured on 3 and 10 biopwia post-weaning. Duroc Yorkshire synthetic Yorkshire Dutch Landrace synthetic. The piglets were weaned atAbbreviations: BW, body biopeia Hp, haptoglobin; NEm, net energy for maintenance. Presented in part in vrllosidades form Spreeuwenberg et al.
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, fax 31email mirjam. Creep feed was not provided during the suckling corionicaw so as to enhance the differential response, if any, to the exper- imental niopsia and to prevent the induction of inter-individ- ual variability by variable pre-weaning ingestion of solid feed Bruininx, The calculated nutrient compo- sition of the experimental diets is shown in Table 2.
After weaning days 0 to 10the piglets were givenaccess to a maximum amount of dietary energy. The fol- lowing formula describes the amount of net energy for maintenance NEm of the piglets according to their meta-0bolic weight on the day of weaning BW National 80 cm2.
Each pen was equipped with two feed troughs and a nipple drinker. The environmental tempera-ture was maintained at C. During the day of weaning, lights were on continuously. From day 1 onwards lights were on from Feeds, feeding and experimental designOn the day before weaning day 2 1the piglets were weighed and placed back with the sow.
Based on those weights the piglets were blocked by body weight BW and randomly allocated to one of seven groups. In total, piglets of seventeen litters were used; littermates were evenly distributed among dietary treatment and among day of dissection.
On the day of weaning day 0cprionicas tion was performed on a group of six piglets. The remaining six groups were dissected on day 3 or 10 post- weaning and received one of the three experimental diets in the form of a slurry. The experimental diets differed in their carbohydrate composition. A mixture of constant biopssia was for- mulated Table 1. Wheat starch is regarded as rapidly digestible based on its in vitro, fractional digestion rate and has a total potential digestibility of SD Table 1.
The vitamin and trace element inclusion supplied per g constant components: Feed refusals were collected, weighed and dried overnight at C. Growth performance and faeces consistencyThe piglets were weighed on days 2 1, 0, 3 and 10 post- weaning.
Average daily gain was calculated for the periods2 1 to 0, 0 to 3 and 3 to 10 d. Faecal consistency was mon- veklosidades twice per d and quantified using a score on a scale from 0 to 3, with 0 being normally shaped faeces, 1being shapeless loose faeces, 2 viopsia thick, liquid soft faeces, and 3 being thin, liquid faeces watery diarrhoea.
Muestra de Vellosidades Coriónicas
The scoring was done by experienced care-takers who were unaware of piglet treatment. DM 2 crude protein fat crude fibre ash. Calculated with the use of the Dutch feed tables CentraalVeevoederbureau, Ceva Sante Animale B. A midline laparotomy was performed. From the vena cava caudalis a blood sample was taken into a 9 ml tube with heparin Lithium-Heparin-Monovettew; Sarstedt, Nu m- brecht, Germany. After mixing carefully, the tubes were immediately put on ice and then centrifuged 10 min, g.
Plasma was stored in the freezer 2 C until analysis.
Muestra de Vellosidades Coriónicas | Blausen Medical
A jejunal segment was taken at 05 m distal to the ligament of Treitz proximal jejunum and a second segment at 35 m distal of this ligament mid-jejunum.
A sample of approximately mm was taken from the prox- imal jejunum and the length and width were measured. Of this sample the mucosal layer was carefully scraped off from the muscle layer with an object-glass and weighed. The mucosal weight was expressed per cm2.
The liver vellosidadez pancreas were removed and weighed. The small intes- tine was divided into three parts: Chyme was collected and mixed, pH was vellosidases and empty weight was deter- mined of the stomach, proximal, mid- and distal small intestine, caecum and large intestine. Empty BW was determined as animal weight without the gastrointestinal tract, liver and spleen. A 3 mm- wide zone from the mesenteric site was cut at right angles to the surface of the mucosa and embedded in par-affin wax.
Sections 5 mm were cut and stained with the periodic acid Schiff procedure. These periodic acid Schiff-stained sections were subsequently used to deter- mine crypt ds mm and villus length mm. One slideper piglet was used and the average values taken for a minimum of five villi and crypts. Briefly, biotinylated porcine Hp was used as a tracer andwas incubated together with either an Hp standard or plasma in microtitre plates coated with sheep anti-rabbit crystalline-fragment immunoglobulins.
After adding the specific rabbit antiserum, plates were incubated for biopsiz h,washed and evaluated via a streptavidin peroxidase system with tetramethylbenzidin as substrate.
Statistical analysisA general linear model procedure SAS version 6. The effect of diet composition was evaluated within the 3 2 experimental design with three experimental diets and days 3 and 10 as dissection days: The effect of day post-weaning was evaluated acrossdiets with day post-weaning as the only independent variable: To compare the effect of a specific diet on day 3 or 10with the day of weaning, the seven groups were regarded as different treatments: The experimental groups differing in diet and day of dissection were regarded as different treatments; eij is the error term.
Only pre-planned comparisons were made, i. The repeated measures option of the general linear model procedure was used to analyse differences betweenpH in the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
The incidence of faeces inconsistency was not distributed nor- mally. Therefore, the effect of dietary treatment on faeces inconsistency was analysed by x2 analysis of the Cadmod corionifas. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate selected correlations. For all data combined, feed intake as a function of days post-weaning was plotted in the form of a box-whisker graph and as means. Significance was assigned at P, ; tendencies were assigned atP, ResultsNone of the piglets showed signs of illness.
Energy intake and average daily gain did not differ between dietary treat- ments. There was substantial inter-individual variation in feed intake. On average, the energy intake required for mainten- ance was reached cellosidades day 4 post-weaning.
Daily feed intakes during the first 3 d post-weaning did not differ between the piglets dissected on day 3 or The average daily gain was SD g from days 2 1 to 0 n 422 40 SD g from days 0 to 3 n 36SD g from days 3 to10 n 18 and SD g from days 0 to Feedintake and growth were positively correlated P, The percentage vellosidases days that a piglet had non-consistentfaeces i.
The graph shows the medians within the boxes and the means as adja- cent bars. Biopsai upper and lower closures of the boxes indicate the quartiles, and the vertical lines whiskers represent the ranges.
The grey area represents the amount of feed offered. For the piglets dissected on day 10 this means that on average the piglets showed inconsistent faeces during 16 d. Of the piglets dissected on day corionicss, four piglets showed no days of inconsistent faeces, seven piglets showed inconsist- ent faeces during 1 d, three piglets during 2 d, two piglets during 3 d, one piglet during 4 d and one piglet during 6 d.
Only four piglets showed during 1 d a faecal score of 3; two of those piglets received the lactose diet, one the glucose and one the starch diet.